Camila Domonoske. A federal judge in Michigan has dropped most of the charges against a Detroit doctor accused of female genital mutilation, concluding that Congress "overstepped its bounds" when it passed a law banning the practice. That law violates the Constitution and is unenforceable, the judge concluded, because in general, criminal law is left to the states — and female genital mutilation should be no exception.
Female genital mutilation FGMalso known as female genital cutting and female circumcision[a] is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond. In half the countries for which national figures are available, most girls are cut before the age of five.
According to the World Health Organization WHOFGM includes all procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The practice has no health benefits for girls and women, says the WHO, adding it can cause long-term physical and psychological harm. There is no clinical evidence to show that it has negative health impacts or causes any kind of psychological trauma.
Back to Health A to Z. Female genital mutilation FGM is a procedure where the female genitals are deliberately cut, injured or changed, but there's no medical reason for this to be done. It's also known as female circumcision or cutting, and by other terms, such as sunna, gudniin, halalays, tahur, megrez and khitan, among others.
Most often the mutilation is performed before puberty, often on girls between the age of four and eight, but recently it is increasingly performed on babies who are only a couple of days, weeks or months old. A variety of sharp objects are used, such as knives, scissors and razors - usually not disinfected. FGM is usually performed by professional circumcisers; women who have a high reputation within their societies.
Female genital cutting FGCalso called female genital mutilation FGMfemale circumcision, excision, clitoridectomy, or infibulationritual surgical procedure that is traditional in some societies. FGC has been practiced by a wide variety of cultures and as a result includes a number of related procedures and social meanings. The term female genital cutting refers to a wide continuum of procedures that range from a symbolic nick to the removal of a great deal of tissue from the genital area.
Saffiatu Sillah, whose circumcision caused her agonising pain during the births of her children, Mijan and Jaria, at home in Philadelphia. When Saffiatu Sillah was growing up in the West African nation of Sierra Leoneher clitoris was cut off in a ritual circumcision. She was left with scar tissue that caused pain during sex and agony during childbirth.
Many international groups are concerned about FGC, which is practiced extensively in parts of Africa and the Middle East and is linked to infections, infertility, and childbirth complications. Organizations such as the United Nations have campaigned against the practice, calling for its abolition as a matter of global health and human rights. But despite a decades-old movement against it, FGC rates in some countries haven't budged.
Female Genital Mutilation FGM comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons as defined by the World Health Organisation WHO. Immediate consequences of FGM include severe pain and bleeding, shock, difficulty in passing urine, infections, injury to nearby genital tissue and sometimes death. T he procedure can result in death through severe bleeding leading to haemorrhagic shock, neurogenic shock as a result of pain and trauma, and overwhelming infection and septicaemiaaccording to Manfred Nowak, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.